Disease & Conditions

Poliomyelitis ; infantile paralysis

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 POLIOMYELITIS

 

·    poliomyelitis which often called infantile paralysis.

 

·    it is highly infectious and viral diseases which is mainly affecting young children under 5 years of age.

 

·    it is an acute viral infectious disease caused by the poliovirus .

 

·    here myelitis means inflammation in the spinal cord which often target the insulating material covering nerve cell fibers.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRIAD

 

agent

 

 

                           host                           environment

 

AGENT

 

·    GENUS; retrovirus

 

·    SPECIES; polio-virus

 

·    structure; ss RNA enclosed in a protein capsid

 

·    SIZE; 30 nm in diameter with icosahedral

 

according to structural differences in the capsid protein of serotype.

 

Ø               serotype1

 

Ø               serotype2

 

Ø               serotype3

 

The causative agent of poliomyelitis is poliovirus. these viruses mainly found in oropharyngeal secretions. the cases of polio are infective 7-10 days after onset of symptoms.

 

HOST FACTOR

 

·    poliomyelitis mainly occurs in infancy and childhood.

 

·    the most vulnerable in the age between 6 months to 6years.

 

·    it can occur in male three times more than female..(3:1)

 

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR

 

·    rainy season

 

·    contaminated water, food, flies

 

·    feces; 2 to 3 weeks

 

·    overcrowding places

 

·    poor sanitation

 

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

 

FEACO-ORAL ROUTE

 

·    through fingers, which are contaminated with poliovirus they entered our mouth.

 

·    indirectly through milk, food, files, and articles.

 

DROPLET INFECTION

 

·    personal contact with an infected person.

 

·    through sneezing, coughing, the virus entered the host body.

 

·    ( incubation period ; 7 – 35 days)

 

CLINICAL MANIFESTATION

 

·    non paralytic  polio

 

·    flu-like symptoms

 

·    sore throat

 

·    fever

 

·    tired ness

 

·    nausea

 

·    stomach pain

 

paralytic polio

 

·    paraesthesia

 

·    meningitis

 

·    paralysis

 

·    weakness

 

DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION

 

·    history collection

 

·    clinical examination

 

·    stool examination

 

·    serological test

 

·    CSF analysis

 

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

 

IMMUNIZATION

 

it is one of the effective means to achieve the prevention of poliomyelitis.

 

the vaccine used are two types ;

 

·    inactivated polio vaccine(Salk vaccine)

 

·    oral polio vaccine(sabin vaccine)

 

INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

 

·    it is the Salk vaccine.it contains all the three types of poliovirus which are inactivated by formalin.

 

·    the main advantage of giving this the vaccine is that it does not contain live viruses.

 

·    so it can be administered safely to the patient with immune deficiency or radiation therapy.

 

ORAL POLIO VACCINE

 

·    it is also called a sabin vaccine.

 

·    it contains live virus according to national immunization schedule.

 

·    oral polio vaccine includes hormonal and intestinal immunity.

 

VACCINE DOSE ROUTE AGE
OPV 3DRP DOSES ORAL AT BIRTH(O DOSE)
  2 BOOSTER DOSE   6 WEEKS(1ST   DOSE)
      10 WEEKS(2ND   DOSE)
      14 WEEKS(3rddose)
      16- 24 months

 

SURVEILLANCE

 

·    surveillance is one of the ways to achieve, control, and prevent by identifying the rise, stability, and decreasing number of cases.

 

ISOLATION

 

·    the polio cases should be isolated during the period of communicability is that 7-10 days before and after the onset of symptoms.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

 

·    as polio occurs due to certain environmental condition such as contaminated watered, food, etc. it also occurs due to poor sanitation and overcrowding.

 

HAND-WASHING

 

·    it is an effective way to prevent poliovirus before entering into the body. as the virus is excreted  in feces and it can go to the gi tract through fingers if hands are not washed after defaecation.so, it is important to wash  the hands.

 

PULSE POLIO CAMPAIGN

 

·     in pulse polio immunization, oral polio vaccine is given to all children of 0-5 years of age regardless of previous immunization.

 

END……

 

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