it is the most common cardiac disease in the united states and other industrialized countries which carries its early sign known as a heart attack. it is otherwise known as ischemic heart disease.
what is a coronary artery?
the coronary artery is the most vital artery which supplies oxygenated blood to the heart. it arises from the aorta and is divided into two. one is the right coronary artery and another one is the left coronary artery. these two arteries are further divided into various branches.
Definition of CAD?
CAD is a group of clinicopathological syndrome which is mainly caused due to the imbalance between oxygen supply and demand to myocardium.
What is it?
when a plaque has formed in the intima layer of the coronary artery, it leads to restriction of blood flow. because of, which our heart muscles cannot get a constant supply of blood. so, here is the main reason behind coronary artery disease.
What is plaque?
plaque is the deposition of cholesterol and also other substances in the artery.it also gives rise to atherosclerosis. gradually it becomes build-up and causes narrowing of the artery which partially or totally block the blood flow.
it is mainly two types
· Non modifiable
Modifiable risk factors
· cigarette smoking
· high cholesterol level in the blood
· behavioral changes like stress, depression, anxiety
Non-modifiable risk factors
· race (American have more chance to have CAD as compared to others)
· gender (males have more chances to have CAD as compared to women)
· age (45 or more than 45)
· family history (any member of the family having the cardiovascular disease at age of 55 or more)
Pathophysiology of CAD
Due to the various etiological factors, There is an accumulation of lipids occurs in the intima layer of the coronary artery. This means atherosclerosis primarily affects the intima of the arterial wall. It is not an instant process. It takes years to develop as it is a gradual process. The continued development of atherosclerosis gives rise to an inflammatory response. It begins with the injury to the vascular endothelium. The injury may be initiated by smoking, hypertension, and other factors. As a result of which blockage occurs in the coronary artery. It blocks the coronary artery partially or completely. But their consequences are very tragic. As it will cause inadequate blood and oxygen supply to the heart muscle. If any condition, The plaque that is formed in the intima of the coronary artery ruptured then plaque contributes to thrombus formation. Then the thrombus leads to an acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.
Sign and Symptoms
· Chest pain and discomfort
· Shortness of breath
· Cold sweat
· Pain and discomfort in the arm and shoulder, the neck, and jaw.
· ECG( ECG measures the electrical activity, rate, and also regulation of your heartbeat)
· ECHO-CARDIOGRAM( use ultrasound to create of the heart)
· EXERCISE STRESS TEST( it measures your heart rate when you walk on a treadmill, it helps to determine how well your heart working when it has to pump more blood).
· CHEST X-RAY
· CORONARY ANGIOGRAM( it monitors blockage and flow of blood through the coronary arteries and also use x-rays to detect dye injected via cardiac catheterization.
when a person is suffering from coronary artery disease, then the doctor prescribed some antianginal medications to balance the oxygen supply and demand.
· Organic nitrates like; isosorbide, mononitrate
· Beta blockers like; propranolol, magnolol
· Aspirin and antiplatelet helps to reduce thrombus formation.
· Calcium channel blockers are like; nifedipine, amlodipine
· Anti-lipid agents help to reduce cholesterol.