Epilepsy-Disease or disorder?
Epilepsy, there are various conflict arise for this disorder. Not only the small children but also the young adults are the sufferer. Whatever, people are always get confused between epilepsy and seizure. So, let’s identify these from one by one.
What is epilepsy?
In medical terms, epilepsy is a group of syndromes in which the normal chemical and electrical activity of the nerve cell(neurons) in the brain become disturbed. So, mainly it is a neurological disorder.At least two unprovoked seizures are generally required for an epilepsy diagnosis.
What is a seizure?
Where there is epilepsy there is the obvious presence of seizure. Yes, we can say that because epilepsy provokes the neurons to fire abnormally. Which means the disturbances in the brain due to epilepsy causes nerve cells to fire abnormally. If many neurons fire at the same time, It will give rise to seizure.
Another type of seizure is also there, Which we called status epilepticus.
What is status epilepticus?
Status epilepticus is a series of generalized seizures. It means up to 500 times a day.
what happens in the seizure?
· when the seizure is going to happen, the person with epilepsy stare off to the space suddenly.
· during this period, he/she makes a strange sound.
· sudden a rise in emotions and also some kind of sensations.
· some behaviors that may be seen inappropriate like undress themselves, laughing without any reason and also walk in a circle.
These all activities are broadly depending upon which part of the brain is affected and how it is.
Causes of epilepsy
· genetic mutation
· birth defect
· structural changes in the brain due to trauma, infections, or stroke
· infections of the central nervous system
Symptoms of epilepsy
Repeated event of seizures is called epilepsy. There are some of the symptoms by which we can easily find out this disorder.
· a convulsion with no fever
· a a short spell of a blackout or confused memory
· intermittent fainting spells
· for a short period, the person is unresponsive to the instructions.
· the the person becomes stiff.
· the the person suddenly falls for no clear reason.
· for a short time, the person seems dazed and unable to communicate.
· the arms, legs, or body jerk, in babies these will appear as a cluster of rapid jerking movements.
· peculiar changes in a sense, such as smell, touch, and sound.
Types of seizures
Mainly there are two major types of seizures
1. generalized seizures (it affects both side of the brain)
2. focal seizures (located just in one area of the brain, also called partial seizure)
1) then the focal seizure which we called the partial seizure is of two types;
· simple partial seizure (it is an acute stage of seizure in which the patient is in conscious state)
· complex partial seizure (in this case the person is in an unconscious state)
2) the generalized seizure which is also called grand mal seizure is of six types;
· tonic seizure (stiffing of the body)
· clonic seizure (jerking movement of the body)
· tonic clonic seizure (stiffening is followed by jerking movement of the body)
· myoclonic seizure (sudden twitching and suddenly single jerking of the body)
· atonic seizure (it is also called an akinetic seizure, there is no movement and loss of muscle tone)
· absence seizure (it is also called petit mal seizure and patient also appear day dreaming)
Treatment of epilepsy
doctors are prescribed some anti-epileptic and also some anti-seizure drugs like
· valproic acid
· the u.s food and drug administration approved XCOPRI( carbamate tablets ) to treat the partial-onset of seizure in adults.
· topiramate etc
When medications are failed to control seizures, the epilepsy surgery is chosen to be an option for that. The above condition is called medically refractory epilepsy or drug-resistant epilepsy.
So, at first, we can understand the whole mechanism of epilepsy then we should try to overcome it.