ACID-BASE BALANCE; THE WHOLE CONCEPT OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND BICARBONATE IONS
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- Our body is made up of some vital components, the blood is one of that. It carries some important ions which are very important for smoothening the metabolic function of our body.
- Let’s discuss the interesting mechanism of co2 and HCO3. To maintain the homeostasis, there is an equilibrium takes place between CO2 and HCO3. This is called the Acid-Base balance.
- By the help of ABG(atrial blood gas) analysis, we can detect the imbalance.it has been done with the ABG analyzer.
- What is pH ?
- The normal body pH of human is 7.35 to 7.45. if there is any kind of alteration occurs then it leads to an acid-base imbalance of the blood.
- basically, if the blood pH is lower than 7.35 then it can be acidosis and if the blood pH is higher than 7.45 than it can be alkalosis.
- Besides it, two
- vital ions are CO2 and HCO3. both are carried out an important role in maintaining the acid-base balance.
- What’s the role of CO2 and HCO3?
- The normal value of CO2 in blood is,
- PCO2=35-45 mm/Hg
- The normal value of bicarbonate ions in the blood are,
- HCO3 =22-26mmol/L
- If there is any kind of alteration occurs which means if the PCO2 is more then 45. this condition is called respiratory acidosis.
- If the PCO2 is less than 35 mm/Hg, it is called respiratory alkalosis.
- Like that, if there is an increase in the value of HCO3, Means the value of HCO3 is more than 26mmol/ L.Then it is called metabolic alkalosis.
- In the same way, if there is a decrease in the value of HCO3 which means the value of HCO3 is less than 22mmol/L. It is called metabolic acidosis.
- Hence it is clear that the respiratory and metabolic mechanism of acid-base balance is work to compensate each other and also to maintain an equilibrium.
- How to identify the respiratory acidosis and alkalosis?
- As the PCO2 is related to the respiratory mechanism of the body. so any kind of changes in the PCO2 brings changes in the equilibrium between acid and base.
- The respiratory acidosis mainly depends on the PCO2 value in blood and also the pH value. If the pH value is less than 7.35 and the PCO2 value is more than 45mm/Hg. Then it is called respiratory acidosis.
- In the same way, if the value of PH is more than 7.45 and the value of PCO2 is less than 35 mm/Hg. then it is called respiratory alkalosis.
- How to identify metabolic acidosis and alkalosis?
- As all the metabolic process of the body is related to the renal system, it’s called metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. To determine if we should focus on the value of HCO3 and PH.
- If there is an increase in PH value and also an increase in the value of HCO3, it is called metabolic alkalosis. ( HCO3 is more than 26 mmol/L.
- If there is a decrease in PH value and also the value of HCO3 also less( less than 22mmol/L). then is called metabolic alkalosis.
- In this way, we can know, where it is respiratory or metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.